Archive for January, 2010

A digital library is a library in which collections are stored in digital formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media) and accessible by computers. The digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. A digital library is a type of information retrieval system.
The DELOS Digital Library Reference Model defines a digital library as:
An organization, which might be virtual, that comprehensively collects, manages and preserves for the long term rich digital content, and offers to its user communities specialized functionality on that content, of measurable quality and according to codified policies.
A distinction is often made between content that was created in a digital format, known as born-digital, and information that has been converted from a physical medium, e.g., paper, by digitizing. The term hybrid library is sometimes used for libraries that have both physical collections and digital collections. For example, American Memory is a digital library within the Library of Congress. Some important digital libraries also serve as long term archives, for example, the ePrint arXiv, and the Internet Archive.

Many academic libraries are actively involved in building institutional repositories of the institution’s books, papers, theses, and other works which can be digitized or were ‘born digital’. Many of these repositories are made available to the general public with few restrictions, in accordance with the goals of open access, in contrast to the publication of research in commercial journals, where the publishers often limit access rights. Institutional, truly free, and corporate repositories are sometimes referred to as digital libraries.


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BibTeX is reference management software for formatting lists of references. The BibTeX tool is typically used together with the LaTeX document preparation system. Within the typesetting system, its name is styled as .
BibTeX was created by Oren Patashnik and Leslie Lamport in 1985. BibTeX makes it easy to cite sources in a consistent manner, by separating bibliographic information from the presentation of this information. This same principle of separation of content and presentation/style is used by LaTeX itself.

BibTeX uses a style-independent text-based file format for lists of bibliography items, such as articles, books, theses. BibTeX bibliography file names usually end in .bib.
Bibliography entries each contain some subset of standard data entries:
address: Publisher’s address (usually just the city, but can be the full address for lesser-known publishers)
annote: An annotation for annotated bibliography styles (not typical)
author: The name(s) of the author(s) (in the case of more than one author, separated by and)
booktitle: The title of the book, if only part of it is being cited
chapter: The chapter number
crossref: The key of the cross-referenced entry
edition: The edition of a book, long form (such as “first” or “second”)
editor: The name(s) of the editor(s)
eprint: A specification of an electronic publication, often a preprint or a technical report
howpublished: How it was published, if the publishing method is nonstandard
institution: The institution that was involved in the publishing, but not necessarily the publisher
journal: The journal or magazine the work was published in
key: A hidden field used for specifying or overriding the alphabetical order of entries (when the “author” and “editor” fields are missing). Note that this is very different from the key (mentioned just after this list) that is used to cite or cross-reference the entry.
month: The month of publication (or, if unpublished, the month of creation)
note: Miscellaneous extra information
number: The “number” of a journal, magazine, or tech-report, if applicable. (Most publications have a “volume”, but no “number” field.)
organization: The conference sponsor
pages: Page numbers, separated either by commas or double-hyphens. For books, the total number of pages.
publisher: The publisher’s name
school: The school where the thesis was written
series: The series of books the book was published in (e.g. “The Hardy Boys” or “Lecture Notes in Computer Science”)
title: The title of the work
type: The type of tech-report, for example, “Research Note”
url: The WWW address
volume: The volume of a journal or multi-volume book
year: The year of publication (or, if unpublished, the year of creation)
In addition, each entry contains a key that is used to cite or cross-reference the entry. This key is the first item in a BibTeX entry, and is not part of any field.

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Style sheets

Web style sheets are a form of separation of presentation and content for web design in which the markup (i.e., HTML or XHTML) of a webpage contains the page’s semantic content and structure, but does not define its visual layout (style). Instead, the style is defined in an external stylesheet file using a style sheet language such as CSS or XSL. This design approach is identified as a “separation” because it largely supersedes the antecedent methodology in which a page’s markup defined both style and structure.
The philosophy underlying this methodology is a specific case of separation of concerns.

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