Archive for the ‘littera’ Category

A digital library is a library in which collections are stored in digital formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media) and accessible by computers. The digital content may be stored locally, or accessed remotely via computer networks. A digital library is a type of information retrieval system.
The DELOS Digital Library Reference Model defines a digital library as:
An organization, which might be virtual, that comprehensively collects, manages and preserves for the long term rich digital content, and offers to its user communities specialized functionality on that content, of measurable quality and according to codified policies.
A distinction is often made between content that was created in a digital format, known as born-digital, and information that has been converted from a physical medium, e.g., paper, by digitizing. The term hybrid library is sometimes used for libraries that have both physical collections and digital collections. For example, American Memory is a digital library within the Library of Congress. Some important digital libraries also serve as long term archives, for example, the ePrint arXiv, and the Internet Archive.

Many academic libraries are actively involved in building institutional repositories of the institution’s books, papers, theses, and other works which can be digitized or were ‘born digital’. Many of these repositories are made available to the general public with few restrictions, in accordance with the goals of open access, in contrast to the publication of research in commercial journals, where the publishers often limit access rights. Institutional, truly free, and corporate repositories are sometimes referred to as digital libraries.



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BibTeX is reference management software for formatting lists of references. The BibTeX tool is typically used together with the LaTeX document preparation system. Within the typesetting system, its name is styled as .
BibTeX was created by Oren Patashnik and Leslie Lamport in 1985. BibTeX makes it easy to cite sources in a consistent manner, by separating bibliographic information from the presentation of this information. This same principle of separation of content and presentation/style is used by LaTeX itself.

BibTeX uses a style-independent text-based file format for lists of bibliography items, such as articles, books, theses. BibTeX bibliography file names usually end in .bib.
Bibliography entries each contain some subset of standard data entries:
address: Publisher’s address (usually just the city, but can be the full address for lesser-known publishers)
annote: An annotation for annotated bibliography styles (not typical)
author: The name(s) of the author(s) (in the case of more than one author, separated by and)
booktitle: The title of the book, if only part of it is being cited
chapter: The chapter number
crossref: The key of the cross-referenced entry
edition: The edition of a book, long form (such as “first” or “second”)
editor: The name(s) of the editor(s)
eprint: A specification of an electronic publication, often a preprint or a technical report
howpublished: How it was published, if the publishing method is nonstandard
institution: The institution that was involved in the publishing, but not necessarily the publisher
journal: The journal or magazine the work was published in
key: A hidden field used for specifying or overriding the alphabetical order of entries (when the “author” and “editor” fields are missing). Note that this is very different from the key (mentioned just after this list) that is used to cite or cross-reference the entry.
month: The month of publication (or, if unpublished, the month of creation)
note: Miscellaneous extra information
number: The “number” of a journal, magazine, or tech-report, if applicable. (Most publications have a “volume”, but no “number” field.)
organization: The conference sponsor
pages: Page numbers, separated either by commas or double-hyphens. For books, the total number of pages.
publisher: The publisher’s name
school: The school where the thesis was written
series: The series of books the book was published in (e.g. “The Hardy Boys” or “Lecture Notes in Computer Science”)
title: The title of the work
type: The type of tech-report, for example, “Research Note”
url: The WWW address
volume: The volume of a journal or multi-volume book
year: The year of publication (or, if unpublished, the year of creation)
In addition, each entry contains a key that is used to cite or cross-reference the entry. This key is the first item in a BibTeX entry, and is not part of any field.

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Style sheets

Web style sheets are a form of separation of presentation and content for web design in which the markup (i.e., HTML or XHTML) of a webpage contains the page’s semantic content and structure, but does not define its visual layout (style). Instead, the style is defined in an external stylesheet file using a style sheet language such as CSS or XSL. This design approach is identified as a “separation” because it largely supersedes the antecedent methodology in which a page’s markup defined both style and structure.
The philosophy underlying this methodology is a specific case of separation of concerns.

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“An e-book (short for electronic book, also written eBook or ebook) is an e-text that forms the digital media equivalent of a conventional printed book, sometimes protected with a digital rights management system. E-books are usually read on personal computers or smart phones, or on dedicated hardware devices known as e-Readers or e-book devices. Many mobile phones can also be used to read e-books.



An e-book reader, also called an e-book device or e-reader, is a device used to display e-books. It may be a device specifically designed for that purpose, or one intended for other purposes as well. The main advantages of these devices are portability, readability of their screens in bright sunlight, and long battery life. Any Personal Data Assistant (PDA) capable of displaying text on a screen is also capable of being an e-book reader, but without the advantages of an electronic ink display.”

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Tim Berners-Lee

“Sir Timothy John “Tim” Berners-Lee is a British engineer and computer scientist and MIT professor credited with inventing the World Wide Web, making the first proposal for it in March 1989. On 25 December 1990, with the help of Robert Cailliau and a young student staff at CERN, he implemented the first successful communication between an HTTP client and server via the Internet. However, the general ideas for the Internet were outlined, also the technological aspect, earlier than Berner-Lee’s technological proposal. In 2007, he was ranked Joint First, alongside Albert Hofmann, in The Telegraph’s list of 100 greatest living geniuses. Berners-Lee is the director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), which oversees the Web’s continued development. He is also the founder of the World Wide Web Foundation, and is a senior researcher and holder of the 3Com Founders Chair at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL). He is a director of The Web Science Research Initiative (WSRI), and a member of the advisory board of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence. In April 2009, he was elected as a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences, based in Washington, D.C.
He has several awards:
• Honorary from the Open University as Doctor of the University.
• Computer History Museum’s Fellow Award, for his seminal contributions to the development of the World Wide Web.
• He was named as the first recipient of Finland’s Millennium Technology Prize, for inventing the World Wide Web. The cash prize, worth one million euros (about £892,000, or US$1.3 million, as of May 2009), was awarded on 15 June, in Helsinki, Finland, by the President of the Republic of Finland, Tarja Halonen.
• He was awarded the rank of Knight Commander (the second-highest rank in the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II, as part of the 2004 New Year’s Honours, and was invested on 16 July 2004.”
This is a link where you can see him talking:


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Shallow parsing (also chunking, “light parsing”) is an analysis of a sentence which identifies the constituents (noun groups, verbs, verb groups, etc.), but does not specify their internal structure, nor their role in the main sentence.

It is a technique widely used in natural language processing. It is similar to the concept of lexical analysis for computer languages.

There are several parsing methods:

  1. Voting model
  2. Maximum entrophy
  3. Language model
  4. Support vector machines  




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Computational semantics is the study of how to automate the process of constructing and reasoning with meaning representations of natural language expressions. It consequently plays an important role in natural language processing and computational linguistics.

Matthew Stone. Towards a Computational Account of Knowledge, Action and Inference in Instructions. To appear in Journal of Language and Computation, 2000.
I consider abstract instructions, which provide indirect descriptions of actions in cases where the speaker has key information that a hearer can use to identify the right action to perform, but the speaker alone cannot identify that action. The communicative effects of such instructions, that the hearer should know what to do, are in effect implicatures.

Computational semantics shares with formal semantics research in linguistics and philosophy an absolute commitment to formalizing the meanings of sentences and discourses exactly. The difference among these fields reflects their overall enterprises. Linguistic semantics, for example, is looking for an account of human knowledge of meaning that accounts for crosslinguistic variation and human language learnability. Philosophical semantics aims to situate knowledge of meaning within a general understanding of the intentionality of human mental states.

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