Shallow parsing (also chunking, “light parsing”) is an analysis of a sentence which identifies the constituents (noun groups, verbs, verb groups, etc.), but does not specify their internal structure, nor their role in the main sentence.

It is a technique widely used in natural language processing. It is similar to the concept of lexical analysis for computer languages.

There are several parsing methods:

  1. Voting model
  2. Maximum entrophy
  3. Language model
  4. Support vector machines  





Computational semantics is the study of how to automate the process of constructing and reasoning with meaning representations of natural language expressions. It consequently plays an important role in natural language processing and computational linguistics.

Matthew Stone. Towards a Computational Account of Knowledge, Action and Inference in Instructions. To appear in Journal of Language and Computation, 2000.
I consider abstract instructions, which provide indirect descriptions of actions in cases where the speaker has key information that a hearer can use to identify the right action to perform, but the speaker alone cannot identify that action. The communicative effects of such instructions, that the hearer should know what to do, are in effect implicatures.

Computational semantics shares with formal semantics research in linguistics and philosophy an absolute commitment to formalizing the meanings of sentences and discourses exactly. The difference among these fields reflects their overall enterprises. Linguistic semantics, for example, is looking for an account of human knowledge of meaning that accounts for crosslinguistic variation and human language learnability. Philosophical semantics aims to situate knowledge of meaning within a general understanding of the intentionality of human mental states.

The natural logic is a groups of terms and rules that come with natural language.  They allow us to reason and argue on it. Examples of logic terms are: “and”, “or”, “not”, “true”, “false”, “if”, “therefore”, “every”, “some”, “necessary”…

We presuppose Natural Logic in much the same way as we presuppose Natural Language: as something we have to start with and precisify later, and that may well come to be revised or extended quite seriously, but also as something that at least seems to be in part given in more or less the same way to any able speaker of a Natural Language: In it there are a considerable number of terms and – usually implicit – rules which enable every speaker of the language to argue and reason, that every speaker knows and has extensive experience with.

Interface generally refers to an abstraction that an entity provides of itself to the outside. This separates the methods of external communication from internal operation, and allows it to be internally modified without affecting the way outside entities interact with it, as well as provide multiple abstractions of itself. It may also provide a means of translation between entities which do not speak the same language, such as between a human and a computer. Because interfaces are a form of indirection, some additional overhead is incurred versus direct communication.

The interface between a human and a computer is called a user interface. Interfaces between hardware components are physical interfaces. This article deals with software interfaces, which exist between separate software components and provide a programmatic mechanism by which these components can communicate.

Topics list

  1. Common Language Resources and Technology Infrastructure
  2. Dialoging NPCs in natural game environments
  3. Question Answering Learning technologies in a multilingual and Multimodal Environment
  4. Computational Semantics
  5. Natural logic and interface
  6. Semantic taxonomy introduction
  7. ShallowSemantic parsing
  8. Knowledge Representation from Text
  9. Lexikoaren behatokia


Kay was responsible for introducing the notion of chart parsing in computational linguistics, and the notion of unification in linguistics generally. With Ron Kaplan, he pioneered finite-state morphology. He has been a longtime contributor to, and critic of, work on machine translation. Permanent chairman of the International Committee on Computational Linguistics, Kay was a Research Fellow at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center until 2002. Gothenburg University has made him an honorary Filosofi Doktor.


He is a techer in the University of Sheffield. He has made courses and series of lectures delivered in functional programming languages, artificial intelligence, intelligent knowledge-based systems, research in computational linguistics, theoretical linguistics, machine translation, philosophy of language, foundations of artificial intelligence, and logic and language.New first year Undergraduate Artificial Intelligence Course from 2001. He has also published many books, such as : Machine Translation: its scope and limits, Readings in the Lexicon and Readings in Machine Translation. He has also won many prices: 2008 Zampolli Prize (ELDA, awarded at LREC-08 in Marrakech, Morocco), 2008 Lifetime Achievement Award (ACL, awarded at ACL-08 in Columbus, OH), 2006 Visiting Professor, University of Oxford (2006-)

*Martin Kay (2004, October 21) In Stanford Department of Linguistics, Retrieved 11:41, March 18, 2009 from: http://www-linguistics.stanford.edu/people/pages/kay.shtml

*Yorick Wilks (2007, 17 April)In University of Sheffield, Department of Computer Science, Retrieved 11:50, March 18, 2009 from: http://www.dcs.shef.ac.uk/~yorick/cv.html



Alice, Emmett, Bella, Edward, Rosalie, Jasper

Alice, Emmett, Bella, Edward, Rosalie, Jasper

Twilight is the first of the four book collection by Stephanie Meyer. The book is about a vampire (Edward) that fells in love with a human girl (Bella) and all the problems of a relation between two people so different. Edward family accept Bella, well, not everyone. One of his “sisters” (Rosalie) doesn’t want to accet her. During the film, Bella is about to be eaten but Edaward’s family save her.

It’s recently made into a film. The main stars, Robert Pattinson and Kirsten Stewart have a good relation and it’s shown in the filmn. They have great chemistry and it’s good for the characters they act.

The main cast is the following:

  • Edward Cullen: Robert Pattinson
  • Bella Swan: Kirsten Stewart
  • Alice Cullen: Ashley Greene
  • Jasper Hale: Jackson Rathbone
  • Rosalie Hale: Nikki Reed
  • Emmett Cullen: Kellan Lutz
  • Carlisle Cullen: Peter Facinelli
  • Esme Cullen: Elizabeth Reaser
  • James: Cam Gigandet
  • Victoria: Rachelle LeFevre
  • Laurent: Edi Gathegi
  • Jacob Black: Taylor Laurent

The Jonas Brothers are an American pop-rock band. The band gained their popularity from the Disney Channel children’s television network. Hailing from Wyckoff, New Jersey, the band consists of three brothers: Kevin Jonas, Joe Jonas, and Nick Jonas. In the summer of 2008, they starred in the Disney Channel Original Movie Camp Rock. They have released three albums: It’s About Time (2006), Jonas Brothers (2007), and A Little Bit Longer (2008). In 2008, the group was nominated for the Best New Artist award at the 51st Grammy Awards, but lost to Adele.

The Jonas BrothersPaul Kevin Jonas (II) Nickname: K2 (born November 5, 1987) – Lead guitar (usually a Gibson Les Paul) and backing vocals. The eldest of the band, goes by Kevin rather than Paul. Kevin helped produce the band’s self-titled CD Jonas Brothers.
Joseph Adam Jonas Nickname: DJ Danger (born August 15, 1989) – Lead vocals, percussion, guitar (in the songs “Please Be Mine”, “A Little Bit Longer”, and “Love is on it’s way”) and keyboard in the song “Year 3000” and “Hold On”. Joe originally had no intention of becoming a singer; he wanted to be a comedian and work on the show All That.
Nicholas Jerry Jonas Nickname: Mr.President (born September 16, 1992) – Lead vocals, rhythm guitar (usually a Gibson SG in the original red stain color), piano in the songs “When You Look Me in the Eyes”, “A Little Bit Longer, and “Love is on its way” and drums in the songs “Australia”, Can’t Have You”, “Sorry”,”Video Girl”, and “On the Line” by Demi Lovato. Nick is the youngest brother in the band. On November 16, 2005 he was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.